
Byte Converter  File Size Calculator
Conversion Calculator
Use this tool to convert file storage size from one unit of measurement to another. The results will return all possible conversion options (bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, petabytes, and exabytes). You are visitor 12,890,673 to this calculator.
The basic unit used in computer data storage is called a bit (binary digit). Computers use these little bits, which are composed of ones and zeros, to do things and talk to other computers. All your files, for instance, are kept in the computer as binary files and translated into words and pictures by the software (which is also ones and zeros). This two number system, is called a "binary number system" since it has only two numbers in it. The decimal number system in contrast has ten unique digits, zero through nine.
But although computer data and file size is normally measured in binary code using the binary number system (counted by factors of two 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, etc), the prefixes for the multiples are based on the metric system! The nearest binary number to 1,000 is 2^10 or 1,024; thus 1,024 bytes was named a Kilobyte. So, although a metric "kilo" equals 1,000 (e.g. one kilogram = 1,000 grams), a binary "Kilo" equals 1,024 (e.g. one Kilobyte = 1,024 bytes). Not surprisingly, this has led to a great deal of confusion.
In December 1998, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) approved a new IEC International Standard. Instead of using the metric prefixes for multiples in binary code, the new IEC standard invented specific prefixes for binary multiples made up of only the first two letters of the metric prefixes and adding the first two letters of the word "binary". Thus, for instance, instead of Kilobyte (KB) or Gigabyte (GB), the new terms would be kibibyte (KiB) or gibibyte (GiB). The new IEC International Standards, which are not commonly used yet, are included below.
Here's a few more details to consider:
 Although data storage capacity is generally expressed in binary code, many hard drive manufacturers (and some newer BIOSs) use a decimal system to express capacity.
 For example, a 30 gigabyte drive is usually 30,000,000,000 bytes (decimal) not the 32,212,254,720 binary bytes you would expect.
 Another trivial point is that in the metric system the "k" or "kilo" prefix is always lowercase (i.e. kilogram = kg not Kg) but since these binary uses for data storage capacity are not properly metric, it has become standard to use an uppercase "K" for the binary form.
 When used to describe Data Transfer Rate, bits/bytes are calculated as in the metric system
 Kilobits per second is usually shortened to kbps or Kbps. Although technically speaking, the term kilobit should have a lowercase initial letter, it has become common to capitalize it in abbreviation (e.g. "56 Kbps" or "56K"). The simple "K" might seem ambiguous but, in the context of data transfer, it can be assumed that the measurement is in bits rather than bytes unless indicated otherwise.
File Storage Capacity by Bits and Bytes 

bit 
byte 
Kilobyte 
Megabyte 
Gigabyte 
bit 
1 
8 
8,192 
8,388,608 
8,589,934,592 
byte 
8 
1 
1,024 
1,048,576 
1,073,741,824 
Kilobyte 
8,192 
1,024 
1 
1,024 
1,048,576 
Megabyte 
8,388,608 
1,048,576 
1,024 
1 
1,024 
Gigabyte 
8,589,934,592 
1,073,741,824 
1,048,576 
1,024 
1 
Terabyte 
8,796,093,022,208 
1,099,511,627,776 
1,073,741,824 
1,048,576 
1,024 
Petabyte 
9,007,199,254,740,992 
1,125,899,906,842,624 
1,099,511,627,776 
1,073,741,824 
1,048,576 
Exabyte 
9,223,372,036,854,775,808 
1,152,921,504,606,846,976 
1,125,899,906,842,624 
1,099,511,627,776 
1,073,741,824 
Zettabyte 
9,444,732,965,739,290,427,392 
1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 
1,152,921,504,606,846,976 
1,125,899,906,842,624 
1,099,511,627,776 

File Storage Capacity by Powers of Two (Base 2) 

bit 
byte 
Kilobyte 
Megabyte 
Gigabyte 
Terabyte 
Petabyte 
Exabyte 
Zettabyte 
Yottabyte 
bit 
2^0 
2^3 
2^13 
2^23 
2^33 
2^43 
2^53 
2^63 
2^73 
2^83 
byte 
2^3 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
2^30 
2^40 
2^50 
2^60 
2^70 
2^80 
Kilobyte 
2^13 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
2^30 
2^40 
2^50 
2^60 
2^70 
Megabyte 
2^23 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
2^30 
2^40 
2^50 
2^60 
Gigabyte 
2^33 
2^30 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
2^30 
2^40 
2^50 
Terabyte 
2^43 
2^40 
2^30 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
2^30 
2^40 
Petabyte 
2^53 
2^50 
2^40 
2^30 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
2^30 
Exabyte 
2^63 
2^60 
2^50 
2^40 
2^30 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
2^20 
Zettabyte 
2^73 
2^70 
2^60 
2^50 
2^40 
2^30 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 
2^10 
Yottabyte 
2^83 
2^80 
2^70 
2^60 
2^50 
2^40 
2^30 
2^20 
2^10 
2^0 

New IEC Standard 
bit 
bit 
0 or 1 
byte 
B 
8 bits 
kibibit 
Kibit 
1024 bits 
kilobit 
kbit 
1000 bits 
kibibyte (binary) 
KiB 
1024 bytes 
kilobyte (decimal) 
kB 
1000 bytes 
megabit 
Mbit 
1000 kilobits 
mebibyte (binary) 
MiB 
1024 kibibytes 
megabyte (decimal) 
MB 
1000 kilobytes 
gigabit 
Gbit 
1000 megabits 
gibibyte (binary) 
GiB 
1024 mebibytes 
gigabyte (decimal) 
GB 
1000 megabytes 
terabit 
Tbit 
1000 gigabits 
tebibyte (binary) 
TiB 
1024 gibibytes 
terabyte (decimal) 
TB 
1000 gigabytes 
petabit 
Pbit 
1000 terabits 
pebibyte (binary) 
PiB 
1024 tebibytes 
petabyte (decimal) 
PB 
1000 terabytes 
exabit 
Ebit 
1000 petabits 
exbibyte (binary) 
EiB 
1024 pebibytes 
exabyte (decimal) 
EB 
1000 petabytes 

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